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Polish Nouns

Have you ever wondered if there are articles such as a, an, the in Polish? Well, there are NO ARTICLES IN POLISH. It works out that  girl can be a girl or the girl and it all depends on a context of a sentence how you translate these things.

The Polish language distinguishes three different genders for nouns: masculine, feminine and neuter. There is no relation between grammatical gender and natural gender.

Examples: masculine gender - dom (house); feminine gender - pani (lady); neuter gender - piwo (beer).

Nouns can end in a consonant or in a vowel, for example:

blok (block) – masculine gender, where blok- is a stem

drabina (ladder) – feminine gender, where drabin- is a stem

drzewo (tree) – neuter gender, where drzew- is a stem 

 

MASCULINE NOUNS

Usually end in a consonant but there are cases when they end in -a; sometimes masculine nouns change their stems: wół (ox) – woły, dół (hole) – doły. Masculine non-personal nouns ending in hard consonants (p, b, f, w, m, t, d, s, z, n, ł, r, k, g, ch) usually generate the plural in -y: dół (hole) – doły (holes); after k or g you will find -i: blok (block) – bloki (blocks). Masculine non-personal nouns ending in soft consonants (p`, b`, f`, w`, m`, ć, dź, ś, ź, ń, l, rz, c, dz, sz/ś, j, cz, ż) usually generate the plural in -e: koc (blanket) – koce (blankets). Masculine personal nouns often have special endings in the plural. Most of the times the ending is -i/y: chłopiec (boy) - chłopcy (boys). The ending for titles and relations (with some exeptions) is -owie: syn (son) – synowie (sons). Some masculine personal nouns have a plural in -`e: Hiszpan (Spanishman) – Hiszpanie (Spanishmen).

FEMININE NOUNS

Feminine nouns most often end in -a: mama (mum). There are examples of feminine nouns that end in a soft consonant: rzecz (thing). Some feminine personal nouns end in -ipani (lady).Plural of feminine nouns: when ending in a hard consonant they take -y: kołdra (duvet) – kołdry; after k or g there will be -i: popielniczka (ash tray) – popielniczki; when ending in a soft consonant they take -e: dłoń (hand) – dłonie. There are feminine nouns ending in a soft consonant that change to -y/i: droga (road) – drogi.

NEUTER NOUNS

Neuter nouns end in -o or -e: podwórko (yard), dziecko (child), pole (field). There are words ending with (zwierzę [animal]) and -um (liceum). Plural of neuter nouns – generated ending is -a: dłuto (chisel) – dłuta, liceum - licea.

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