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Polish Verbs

Polish Verbs

The majority of Polish verbs have two aspects, the imperfective for conveying the periodicity of an action or describing a process, and the perfective for stressing on a single action or a result.

The Polish perfective verbs can only be used in the past and future, while the imperfective can be used in the present tense as well.

Verb answers the questions: co robi?(what does he/she/it do?), co się z nim dzieje? (what happens to him/her/it?), w jakim jest stanie? (what is the condition?).

Verb in a sentence can function as:

  • PREDICATE (Polish: orzeczenie): Wazon stoi na stole. – A vase is standing on the table.
  • SUBJECT (Polish: podmiot): Tańczyć jest fajnie. – Dancing is fun.
  • ATTRIBUTE (Polish: przydawka): Poszedł robić śniadanie.  – He has gone to make a breakfast.

The Polish verbs are divided into:

  • PERSONAL: Mój tata je obiad. – A dad is eating dinner.
  • NON-PERSONAL these include:

- INFINITIVE: chodzić, mówić

- ADJECTIVAL PARTICIPLES: gotujący, malowany

- ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES: przejechawszy, podniósłszy, robiąc

- IMPERSONAL FORMS: mówiono, malowano

  • TRANSITIVE: lać – być lanym
  • INTRANSITIVE: śpiewać głośno
  • PERFECTIVE: ugotować, namówić, wyjść
  • IMPERFECTIVE: chodzić, tańczyć

Participles are formed of verbs and are divided into:

The rules of forming participles from verbs:

  1. Adjectival passive participles are formed only from transitive verbs.
  2. Adjectival active participles and adverbial contemporary participles are formed only from imperfective verbs.
  3. Adverbial  prior participles are formed from perfective verbs.

Verbs inflect for:

  • PERSONS – informs who is a performer of the action,
  • TENSES – informs of a tense of the action (past, present, future),
  • MODES:

- INDICATIVE MODE – informs of the action that was taking a place, is taking a place and will take a place: biegałem – biegam – będę biegał

- SUBJUNCTIVE MODE – informs that the action`s existence is desirable but uncertain: umyłbym, schowałbym

- IMPERATIVE MODE – warrant: biegnij, umyj, schowaj

  • VOICES – we distinguish:

- ACTIVE VOICE - the subject of the active voice is the person performing the act: Mama gotuje obiad. – Mum is cooking dinner.

- PASSIVE VOICE – the entity of the passive voice is a static person because they passively undergo operations: Obiad został ugotowany przez mamę. – Dinner has been cooked by my mum.

- REFLEXIVE VOICE – the entity of the reflexive voice is a person that attracts the action (use the pronoun “się“): Mama ubiera się. – Mum is getting dressed.

Verbs are subjected to conjugation:

There is a list of some key Polish verbs HERE for everyone who wants to find e few more examples of conjugation in the Polish language.

The information generated by the Team of www.learn-polish.org.uk

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